MV: Fiqh is the science of Islam law or jurisprudence. It refers to the explanation, collection, and compilation of Islamic laws based on the Quran and the sunnah of the Prophet Mauhammad (pbuh). The word Fiqh means knowledge and understanding.
The scholars of Islamic Law have made Shariah (Islamic Law) easier to understand and practice by the science of Fiqh. A person who has detailed knowledge and understanding of Fiqh is called a Faqih. A person qualified to give a ruling on issues in Shariah is called mufti. the ruling he gives is called a fatwa.
Some Great Muslims devoted themselves to the task of developing the science of understanding Islamic law and its practice. The four best known compilers and interpreters of Islamic law or Shariah are:
1. Abu hanifah numan bin Thabit, known as Imam Abu Hanifah
2. Malik bin Anas, knows as Imam Malik
3. Mauhamad bin idris ash-Shafi, known as Imam Shafi
4. Ahmad bin Hanbal, known as Imam Ibn Hanbal
Islamic laws divdes human activities into:
(1) Fard or Wajib (duty or Obligatory) – performance of these actions is rewarded and there omission is punished.
(2) Mandub (recommended) – actions the performance of which is rewarded but omission of which is not punished.
(3) Mubah (permissible) – actions permitted by silence.
(4) Makruh (disliked or reprehensible) – actions disapproved of but not punishable.
(5) Haram (forbidden) – actions punishable by law.
Islamic law or Shariah embodies the ideal Islamic life. Islam is the complete way of life and Shariah is the means to arrive the at the ideal life recommended by Islam. Shariah enables us to bring our life in line with the will of Allah. It is the means of achieving our goal of life.
I got this from an Islamic book titled ISLAM beliefs and teachings by Ghulam Sharwar.