About Fiqh

MV: Fiqh is  the science of Islam law or jurisprudence. It refers to the explanation, collection, and compilation of Islamic laws based on the Quran and the sunnah of the Prophet Mauhammad (pbuh). The word Fiqh means knowledge and understanding.

The scholars of Islamic Law have made Shariah (Islamic Law) easier to understand and practice by the science of Fiqh. A person who has detailed knowledge and understanding of Fiqh is called a Faqih. A person qualified to give a ruling on issues in Shariah is called mufti. the ruling he gives is called a fatwa.

Some  Great Muslims devoted themselves to the task of  developing the science of understanding Islamic law and its practice.  The four best known compilers and interpreters  of Islamic law or Shariah are:

1. Abu hanifah numan bin Thabit, known as Imam Abu Hanifah

2. Malik bin Anas, knows as Imam Malik

3. Mauhamad bin idris ash-Shafi, known as Imam Shafi

4. Ahmad bin Hanbal, known as Imam Ibn Hanbal

Islamic laws divdes human activities into:

(1) Fard or Wajib (duty or Obligatory) – performance of these actions is rewarded and there omission is punished.

(2) Mandub (recommended) – actions the performance of which is rewarded but omission of which is not punished.

(3) Mubah (permissible) – actions permitted by silence.

(4) Makruh (disliked or reprehensible) – actions disapproved of but not punishable.

(5) Haram (forbidden) – actions punishable by law.

Islamic law or Shariah embodies the ideal Islamic life. Islam is the complete way of life and Shariah is the means to arrive the at the ideal life recommended by Islam.  Shariah  enables us to bring our life in line with the will of Allah. It is the means of achieving our goal of life.

I got this from an Islamic book titled ISLAM beliefs and teachings by Ghulam Sharwar.

8 thoughts on “About Fiqh

  1. Quranic verses about Haraam
    Here are some well known verses that are commonly referenced in regard to unlawful food or drinks:

    “He hath forbidden you only carrion, and blood, and swineflesh, and that which hath been immolated to (the name of) any other than Allah. But he who is driven by necessity, neither craving nor transgressing, it is no sin for him. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful”.[Qur’an 2:173]

    “How should ye not eat of that over which the name of Allah hath been mentioned, when He hath explained unto you that which is forbidden unto you unless ye are compelled thereto. But lo! many are led astray by their own lusts through ignorance. Lo! thy Lord, He is Best Aware of the transgressors.” [Qur’an 6:119]

    Here are verses that reference fornication being haraam:

    “And come not near unto adultery. Lo! it is an abomination and an evil way.” [Qur’an 17:32]

    “Those who invoke not, with Allah, any other god, nor slay such life as Allah has made sacred except for just cause, nor commit fornication; – and any that does this (not only) meets punishment.” [Qur’an 25:68]

    Here is a verse that references shirk being haraam:

    “Say: I am forbidden to worship those on whom ye call instead of Allah. Say: I will not follow your desires, for then should I go astray and I should not be of the rightly guided.” [Qur’an 6:56]

    Hadith sayings about Haraam

    The Hadith is a compilation of the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad and there are a several sayings of the Prophet that relate to unlawful acts or food in the Islam religion. Below are some sayings from the Hadith collections:

    Hadith mentioning haraam food and prohibition of alcohol:

    In an incident narrated by Rafi’ bin Khadij, the Prophet told Muslims who wanted to slaughter some animals using reeds, “Use whatever causes blood to flow, and eat the animals if the Name of Allah has been mentioned on slaughtering them…”(Bukhari).

    Narrated Abu Thalaba: “Allah’s Messenger forbade the eating of the meat of beasts having fangs “(Narrated by Bukhari).

    From Muslim (from Abi Said): The Prophet said: “Allah has forbidden alcoholic drinks. Whoever this verse reaches while they still possess any of it, they are not to drink nor to sell.”

    Hadith mentioning fornication as haraam:

    Prophet Muhammad explained: “If one of you were to be stabbed in the head with a piece of iron it would be better for him than if he were to touch a woman whom it is not permissible for him to touch.”

    Hadith mentioning shirk as haraam:

    It is reported on the authority of Ibn Mas’ood that the Messenger of Allah said: “Whoever died while supplicating another deity besides Allah, will enter the Fire.” (Narrated by Bukhari)

  2. Why are there these four “Schools of Thought”?

    Why are these names Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Malik, Imam Shafi , Imam Ahmed (May Allah be pleased with them) so important?

  3. In my view, following imams is short cut for the person whom it is hard to go through all Quran and saying of prophet to get conclusion on a metter otherwise it is always good to go through original source if one can afford or thinks he/she is qualified enough. these day mejority does not even have time to read what these imams have said we get convay through third person like scholars on web or local mosque. so in other word we are following not those imam even we are following what scholars are saying.

  4. Amir, as stated above, the reason they are so important is because they are known to be the four best interpreters of the Quran. However as mentioned before by Syed, it is also important to follow the original source (the Quran) but to help interpret the original source these four Imams can help us.

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